Appenzell is a region and historical canton in the northeast of Switzerland, entirely surrounded by the Canton of St. Gallen. Appenzell became independent of the Abbey of St. Gallen in 1403 and entered a league with the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1411, becoming a full member in 1513. It has been divided since into Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden since 1597 as a result of the Swiss Reformation.