Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment,is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of the Sydney central business district. Botany Bay has its source in the confluence of the Georges River at Taren Point and the Cooks River at Kyeemagh and flows 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the east before meeting its mouth, the Tasman Sea, midpoint between La Perouse and Kurnell.
The total catchment area of the bay is approximately 55 square kilometres (21 sq mi) and the area surrounding the bay is generally managed by Roads and Maritime Services.
Despite its relative shallowness, the bay serves as greater metropolitan Sydney's main cargo seaport, located at Port Botany, with facilities managed by Sydney Ports Corporation. Two runways of Sydney Airport extend into the bay. Botany Bay National Park is located on the northern and southern headlands of the bay.
On 29 April 1770, Botany Bay was the site of James Cook's first landing of HMS Endeavour on the continent of Australia, after his extensive navigation of New Zealand. Later the British planned Botany Bay as the site for a penal colony. Out of these plans came the first European habitation of Australia at Sydney Cove.[source]